To strengthen their claim, the British built a combination post office / gift shop at Port Lockroy to demonstrate that they were using the territory for something other than sending Kurt Russells to their doom. Chile and Argentina took it a step further, paying people to live in two tiny "towns," Villa Las Estrellas and Esperanza, during the Antarctic winter -- aka "The Long, Dark, Frozen Hellscape of Death" -- in order to bolster their claims of Antarctic settlement.
So what does it take to be a semi-permanent resident of Earth's most inhospitable continent? First off, all candidates must undergo rigorous psychological examinations to make sure months of darkness and complete isolation won't make them go full The Shining on their neighbors' asses. Oh, and since a medical emergency would be a veritable death sentence, Antarctica is a strictly appendix-free zone. If you've got one, that s**t comes out before you ship out.
Just in case it's an alien parasite that wakes in ice storms.
If all that sounds like an awful lot of petty crap to go through for literally the worst place in the world, you ain't heard nothing yet. Back in the '70s, Argentina produced the world's first "Antarctic citizens" by flying seven pregnant women to a base in Antarctica just so they could give birth there. Not to be outdone, Chile got in on the world's most fucked-up baby race, and now at least 10 people are known to have been born in Antarctica. And that, friends, is how the White Walkers got started.