That man is in the middle of removing his own appendix, and no, this isn't a test project for the future of American healthcare. The year was 1961, and surgeon Leonid Rogozov was part of a Soviet expedition to the Antarctic. One day he realized he had appendicitis, and the remote location, brutal winter weather, and roving shoggoths made getting help impossible. His choices were "wait to die" or "cut open his own abdomen and start rooting around in there," so he did the latter. Without anesthetic after the initial cut, because he needed a clear head. And also because he had left absolutely all of his fucks at home in Russia.
After two hours of working by touch, he got his appendix out only a day before it would have burst and killed him. He was back to work two weeks later. His diary entry shows more concern for his "poor assistants" than himself, despite the fact that he almost lost consciousness from the pain. It's now mandatory for Antarctic researchers to receive appendectomies, because no one wants to have to top Rogozov's horrifying badassery, although it would be a great way to test for the presence of Things.