Perelman bought Marvel for $82 million. He raised prices and released multiple versions of comic books to cater to speculators. Then he started catering to a more hardcore type of speculator: investors. He took Marvel public, and investors rushed to buy shares, based on the undeniable fact that the stock value was currently rising. With the stock price soon up 1,500 percent, Perelman made a killing personally. He sank Marvel's profits into a bunch of risky acquisitions, which ... okay, if your eyes are glazing over at the finance talk, let's also say Perelman put on a supersuit and murdered the entire board of directors. (Our lawyers have obligated us to note that Perelman did not really put on a supersuit and murder the entire board of directors.)
In time, comic book collectors realized none of the books they were squirreling away were rare enough to ever gain value. They stopped buying, comic book stores shut down, Marvel's revenues fell, and the stock price plummeted. Marvel declared bankruptcy in 1996. Another billionaire managed to take over the company -- Carl Icahn, future economic adviser to the Trump administration -- and Marvel famously sold off the movie rights to X-Men, Spider-Man, and more to stay afloat.
Then came the 2000s, and X-Men and Spider-Man movies made a ton of money (for other companies). And Marvel, now having ditched Perelman and Icahn, eventually got around to seriously entering the movie business. Today, their characters are icons before which all must bow. The 2028 Olympics will be held in Los Angeles, and Captain America will presumably light the torch. Everyone in the world will cheer. All will be forgiven.